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Lithiumate™ Manual

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Installation - BMS controller (w/o HV) wiring

Connector specifications and wiring instructions for the 2CN0xx0x Standard Li-Ion BMS controllers without HV Front End.

You MUST provide a way for the BMS to shut down the source (charger), and the load, DIRECTLY!

Otherwise, your cells are NOT PROTECTED, and will not be balanced.

BOTH GROUND PINS MUST BE WIRED TO THE SUPPLY!

back to topGood technique

Unfortunately, we do not have the resources to teach all of our clients proper assembly procedures, which are essential for a succesful project. What we can do is to pass along this info to you:

back to topControl

This connector is used to connect the BMS to the rest of the system.

Wiring info:

On PCB Mate Pin-out
16-pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr male header
 
Molex Mini-Fit Jr, 0.165" pitch
16-pin male header
16-pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 39-01-2160 DK:WM3707-ND
Crimp socket, 18-24 AWG, tin: 39-00-0039 DK:WM2501-ND
Crimp socket, 22-28 AWG, tin: 39-00-0047 DK:WM2503-ND
16-pin Molex Mini-Fit Jr female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side

NOTE PIN NUMBERS AND TAB ORIENTATION!

Control connector plugged in
Control connector plugged into controller.
# Name Type Function Notes
1 GND Gnd Signal ground Use a separate wire from power ground, to avoid errors in analog readings.
2 V+ Pwr out Full voltage utility supply Voltage present when BMS powered through either V+ line. May be used to power equipment such as loggers, remote controllers.
3 V+L Pwr in Power in from load The BMS is powered by voltage at either terminal (uses isolating diodes). V+L must be powered whenever the load is on, and only then. V+S must be powered whenever the source is on, and only then. For example, in a BEV or PHEV application, V+L is powered by Ignition, V+S is powered whenever the vehicle is plugged into AC power. In a HEV application, V+S is powered by the ignition. In a UPS application, V+S is powered whenever there's AC power, and V+L is powered all the time. If only one power source is possible, use V+S.
Which input powers the BMS selects which current sensor is used. If both are powered simultaneously, the current reading may double.
4 V+S Pwr in Power in from source
5 Cont. Req, Dig in Contactor request Requests that contactors be on. For vehicle applications, connected to the Ignition line (off when ignition goes off).
6 SRC Lin in Source current Analog input to measure current from the source / charger
7 5V Pwr out 5 V utility supply To power low power devices
8 CANL Bus CAN Bus low  
9 PGND Gnd Power common Return for high current loads (contactor coils, fan, HLIM, LLIM and Fault outputs). Use a separate wire from the signal ground
10 LLIM O.D. out Low Limit Open collector, polarity selectable in software. Activated when the most charged cell's voltage is too high (HLIM) or when the most discharged cell's voltage is too low (LLIM).
11 HLIM O.D. out High Limit
12 FLT O.D. out Fault Open collector, polarity selectable in software. Activated in case of alarm.
13 SOC Lin out State Of Charge analog out Analog voltage: 5 V = 100 % full, down to 0 V = empty
14 DCL Lin out Discharge Current Limit Analog voltage: 5 V = no limit, down to 0 V = no current allowed.
15 CCL Lin out Charge Current Limit
16 CANH Bus CAN Bus high  
back to topGrounding

BOTH GROUND PINS MUST BE WIRED TO THE SUPPLY!

This controller has 2 separate grounds.

  • Signal ground: low current, reference for digital and analog signals
  • Power ground: carries the high current for power devices: fan driver and contactor coil drivers

Both of these grounds must be connected to the negative of the low voltage supply (the 12 V nominal power supply, DC-DC converter or battery that powers the BMS), each through a separate wire.
These grounds are connected to each other on the BMS controller by a small resistor.

BMS grounding
Grounding of the BMS.

Additionally, the metal case of enclosed controllers, which is isolated from the signal and power grounds, must be connected directly to earth or chassis.

  • This is for safety reasons
  • This is also required to perform the chassis isolation test (through the HV Front End)

The negative of the low voltage supply (which is connected to the signal and power grounds) may or may not be connected to the earth or chassis, as required by the application.

In general, for safety reasons, the negative of the high voltage battery (the Li-Ion pack that is managed by this BMS) should not be connected to these grounds. Yet, if safety is not an issue, as far as the Elithion BMS is concerned, it is OK to do so.

BOTH GROUND PINS MUST BE WIRED TO THE SUPPLY!

back to topPower

This controller has 2 separate power inputs

  • Source: on when the power source is on, such as a battery charger
  • Load: on when the battery load is on, such as a motor driver

The BMS is on when there's voltage on either of these inputs. See the specifications for the allowable voltage range and the supply currents.

BMS power
Power to and from the BMS.

The BMS provides 2 power outputs for external devices:

  • V+: powered whenever either power input is powered, at the highest voltage of the two
  • 5V: powered at the same time, but sourcing 5 V

See the specifications for the maximum current available from these outputs.

back to topOpen Drain outputs

There are 3 Open Drain Outputs on the control connector

  • FLT (Fault)
  • HLIM (High limit): battery unable to accept charge
  • LLIM (Low limit): battery unable to accept discharge
BMS open drain outputs
Open drain outputs.

Additionally, there are 4 more Open Drain Outputs on other connectors

  • Coils (3 each)
  • FAN (1 each)

Each of these outputs is either open (clamped to V+) or connected to the power ground, depending on the state they are reporting.

  • With a pull-up resistor to the 5 V supply, they can be used as TTL or CMOS logic outputs
  • They can drive medium power DC loads directly, such as relays
  • See the specifications for the maximum sinking current and maximum open circuit voltage for these outputs.

Note that the polarity (active open or active grounded) is programmable. See the programming instructions.

back to topSignal outputs

There are 3 linear (analog) outputs on the control connector

  • SOC (State Of Charge)
  • CCL (Charge Current Limit)
  • DCL (Discharge Current Limit)
BMS signal outputs
Signal outputs.
  • These outputs produce a voltage in the range from 0 V to 5 V, according to the state of the condition they report
  • They can drive light loads, such as the inputs of Analog to Digital converters
  • They can drive resistors of no less than 5 kOhm, such as throttle pots
  • See the specifications for their output resistance, and maximum voltage for these outputs.

There is one digital output on the FAN connector

  • PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)
  • This is a CMOS output (0 or 5 V), with a high frequency square wave of variable duty cycle, from 0% (always at 0 V: no fan) to 100 % (always at 5 V: full fan speed)
  • It can drive a light load, such as the inputs of a power buffer
  • It cannot drive a fan directly
back to topSignal inputs

There are 2 signal inputs on the control connector

  • Source Current: a linear (analog) input
  • Contactor request: a digital input
BMS signal inputs
Signal inputs.
  • The Source Current input can be driven by a charger that puts out a linear voltage proportional to the charging current
    • This input responds to voltages in the range from 0 V to 5 V, but it is protected against voltages outside this range
  • The Contactor Request input can be driven by the 12 V ignition line in a vehicle
  • To use the contactors to disable discharge when so ordered by the BMS function
    1. Connect the LLIM output to the Contactor request input:
    2. Connect a pull up resistor (such as 1 kΩ) between LLIM and the + 12 V supply
    3. Configure the BMS to close the LLIM output to disable discharge
back to topCAN Bus

If the application includes a CAN bus, the can bus lines can be connected to it.

BMS CAN bus
CAN bus connections.
  • The CAN bus is referenced to the supply ground (it is not floating)
  • The programming shunt next to the connector is placed on a 3-pin connector:
    • In one position, it adds a 120 Ohm termination to the CAN bus
    • In the other position, it doesn't add a termination
back to topSerial port

Use this port with a computer running a Terminal Emulation application, to program the BMS controller.
On PCB Mate
DE-9 D-Sub female
 
DE-9 D-Sub female
DE-9 D-Sub male
 
DE-9 D-Sub male plug
 
# Name Type Function Notes
2 TXD Out RS232 serial data Implements HOST (may be connected directly to a PC, needs Null Modem for a Mac)
3 RXD In RS232 serial data
5 GND Gnd Control common
 

back to topCoils

The controller can directly drive optional contactors: 2 contactors in series with each line of the battery, plus a precharge relay in series with a precharge resistor.
On PCB Mate Pin-out
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL male header
 
Molex C-Grid CL, 0.1" pitch
4-pin male header
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 50-57-9404 DK:WM2902-ND
Crimp socket, 22-24 AWG gold: 16-02-0103 DK:WM2512-ND
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side
 
# Name Type Function Notes
1 K+ Pwr out Contactors' coils common (+) Same as V+ on the control connector: voltage present when the BMS is powered through either V+ line.
2 K1 O.D. out Precharge relay coil (-)  
3 K2 O.D. out Positive contactor coil (-)
4 K3 O.D. out Negative contactor coil (-)
 

Use this circuit if driving contactors from the Lithiumate Pro Master.

Contactor circuit
Contactor circuit.
back to topFan

The controller can control an optional fan when the cell temperature exceeds a threshold. The controller can drive directly a low power DC fan, or a relay to control high power blowers. To drive variable speed fans, additional electronics (not included) must be used to convert the PWM output from the controller to a variable DC voltage. Program the BMS controller to tell it when to start driving the fan, and when to drive it at full speed.
On PCB Mate Pin-out
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL male header
 
Molex C-Grid CL, 0.1" pitch
5-pin male header
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 50-57-9405 DK:WM2903-ND
Crimp socket, 22-24 AWG gold: 16-02-0103 DK:WM2512-ND
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side
 
# Name Type Function Notes
1 GND Gnd Control common  
2 PGND Gnd Power return  
3 FAN O.D. out Low power fan drive / drive for fan relay Grounded when cooling is required
4 FAN PWM Dig out Variable Duty Cycle Pulse Width Modulation 0% DC for no cooling, up to 100% DC for full cooling
5 K+ Pwr out Fan power Voltage present when BMS powered through either V+ line.
 

back to topExternal current sensor

Optional, external, cable mounted, current sensor to monitor battery current to and from the load. Required if a current sensor is not included on the HV Front End, or there is no HV Front End, or if there is no message on the CAN bus reporting the load current.

Compatible with most 4-wire, dual 15 V supply, current sensors. Program the BMS controller to match the current sensor's offset and gain.
On PCB Mate Pin-out
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL male header
 
Molex C-Grid CL, 0.1" pitch
4-pin male header
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 50-57-9404 DK:WM2902-ND
Crimp socket, 22-24 AWG gold: 16-02-0103 DK:WM2512-ND
4-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side
 
# Name Type Function Notes
1 +15V - Positive supply  
2 -15V - Negative supply
3 SIG Lin in Current sensor signal
4 GND Gnd Signal common
 

back to topCell Boards

The battery pack should be divided into 2 or more banks, up to 16 banks. Each bank has two or more cell boards mounted on the cells. The boards in each bank are connected to one of these connectors on the controller. Each of these connectors sends data to the cell boards ("TX") and receives back data ("RX").
On PCB Mate Pin-out
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL male header
 
Molex C-Grid CL, 0.1" pitch
5-pin male header
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 50-57-9405 DK:WM2903-ND
Crimp socket, 22-24 AWG gold: 16-02-0103 DK:WM2512-ND
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side
 
# Name Type Function Wire color Notes
1 TX Out Transmit out Red To most positive cell in the bank
2 GND Gnd TX return Black
3 Shield Common for both TX and RX - Do not terminate at other end
4 Gnd RX return Green To most negative cell in the bank
5 RX In Receive in White
 

back to topInterlock

If you don't know what an interlock* is, then it's very unlikely that you need to bother with this function: don't do anything with it, and everything will work fine.

To use this input:

  • Connect the switch to the Interlock input
    • In BMS controllers rev A through D, the switch must be left floating
    • In BMS controllers rev E and up, the interlock input lines can be connected to any voltage between 0 and V+, either directly or through resistors, as long as the + input is more positive than the - input
  • If using an N.C. switch, program program its polarity as N.C.
  • If the switch is activated, the BMS will report a Fault
  • Set up the system to respond appropriately to a Fault (such as turning off the contactors); otherwise, nothing will happen when the interlock switch is activated
On PCB Mate Pin-out
2-pin Molex C-Grid CL male header
 
Molex C-Grid CL, 0.1" pitch
2-pin male header
5-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing
 
Female housing, locking: 50-57-9402 DK:WM2900-ND
Crimp socket, 22-24 AWG gold: 16-02-0103 DK:WM2512-ND
2-pin Molex C-Grid CL female housing pin-out
 
Female connector, wire entry side
 
# Name Type Function
1 - In Interlock negative input
2 + In Interlock positive input
 

*) An interlock is a switch (normally open or normally closed) that is activated if there is a problem: for example, an inertia switch, a panic button, or a tamper switch, or a wire loop along a high voltage bus..

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